Antimalarial Diterpenoids From Vitex Rotundifolia: Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and in Vitro Antiplasmodial Activity
Vitex rotundifolia is an important medicinal plant frequently employed in traditional medicines for the treatment of various ailments. Although this plant species has been under exploration for its constituents by various research groups including our own group, no reports were found regarding the antimalarial potential of this plant or of its purified phytochemicals. Phytochemical investigation of this plant yielded three new (1-3) and five known (4-8) diterpenoids. These compounds were purified by modern chromatographic techniques and their structures were determined by advanced spectroscopic techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). The in vitro antiplasmodial activities were encouraging, as compounds 2, 6, and 8 were found to have significant IC50 values of 1.2, 1.3 and 11.0 µM, respectively against Plasmodium falciparum.