The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was established in December 2008 to answer strategic questions about schistosomiasis control and elimination. SCORE was funded by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through a grant to the University of Georgia Research Foundation (UGARF). SCORE activities were completed September 2020.
Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is caused by worms that live in the blood vessels, is found predominantly in tropical and sub-tropical climates, especially Africa, Asia, South America and the Middle East, and infects approximately 200 million people worldwide. SCORE’s focus was on the two major disease-causing schistosomes in Africa, South America, and the Middle East –Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium.
SCORE’s goal was to find answers to help current and future schistosomiasis control program managers do the job better. This included learning what approaches to controlling and eliminating schistosomiasis work best and developing and evaluating new tools for program managers to use. Our vision was for our work to inform efforts to gain control of schistosomiasis in high-prevalence areas, sustain control and move towards elimination in areas of moderate prevalence, and ultimately eliminate schistosomiasis. SCORE did this work by funding investigators from around the world to conduct the needed research and evaluation activities.
The terms of the grant to UGARF precluded funding research on S. japonicum, vaccines, or drug discovery. The use of the funds for capacity development as such was also precluded, unless determined essential for conducting SCORE activities.
The SCORE Secretariat was located on the campus of the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia, USA, within the Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases (CTEGD), but the program involved investigators from around the globe. The SCORE Secretariat office closed on September 30, 2020, after all activities were completed.
A special issue about the SCORE program history, results, and messages for the future was published in the July 2020 issue of the American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
The Secretariat provided leadership and management for the SCORE programs
Daniel G. Colley, PhD: Director of SCORE
Carl H. Campbell, Jr: Associate Director for Management
Tammy Andros: Administrator
Jennifer Castleman: Data Coordinator
Sue Binder, MD: Senior Consultant
Charles H. King, MD: Senior Scientist for SCORE
Nupur Kittur: Research Professional
The Advisory Committee provided advice and input on all major SCORE activities
Joseph A. Cook, MD, MPH: Adjunct Epidemiology Professor, Gillings School for Global Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC
Paul Hagan, PhD: Vice-Principal and Pro Vice-Chancellor for Research, Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland
Stephanie James, PhD: Director of Science, Foundation for the National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MA
Eric Ottesen, MD: Director, Neglected Tropical Diseases Support Center, Task Force for Global Health, Atlanta, GA
Stephen McGarvey, PhD: Director, International Health Institute, Brown University, Providence, RI
SCORE funded investigators with a range of experience and expertise. In addition to the funded researchers, many others participated in an ad hoc or ongoing basis in developing and providing input to SCORE’s efforts.
- Gaining control of schistosomiasis. These projects evaluated alternative approaches to mass drug administration (MDA) in communities with high prevalence rates of schistosomiasis. Studies related to subtle morbidity, snail infections and schistosome population genetics were layered onto interventions in some areas where gaining control projects had been implemented.
- Sustaining control of schistosomiasis. These projects evaluated alternative approaches to MDA in areas of moderate prevalence.
- Elimination of schistosomiasis. The original focus of this project was eliminating schistosomiasis in Zanzibar and providing data and insights into effective strategies for moving large areas from having a low prevalence of infection to eliminating schistosomiasis. In addition to demonstrating that infections in humans were reduced and/or eliminated, data were collected on snail infections and schistosome population genetics.
- In July, 2013, SCORE received a supplemental award focused on the elimination of S. mansoni, to complement efforts already underway on S. haematobium on Zanzibar. These additional resources supported research on snail control, as well as studies comparing different approaches to eliminating schistosomiasis in large geographic areas with transmission characteristics associated with S. mansoni infection.
- Field evaluations of the point-of-care (POC) circulating cathodic antigen (CCA) urine assay for use as a screening tool for S. mansoni infection in humans.
- Research and evaluation on human diagnostic tests for schistosomiasis.
- Development of tools for studies of schistosome population genetics.
- Rapid Answers Project (RAP). The RAP projects provided critical information by analyzing and synthesizing existing data.
- To optimize the use of the SCORE data, especially the field studies on gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and the studies that have been layered on them, SCORE worked with programmers and statisticians at UGA to integrate the data from the various study sites and conduct analyses of the combined data.
Rapid Answers Project
Through its RAP program, SCORE conducted systematic evaluations and meta-analysis of existing research evidence concerning several key operational issues relevant to schistosomiasis control and elimination. See below for more information on these RAPs, links to published articles, and links to 2-page brochures for disseminating the findings to a broad audience.
RAP 1 – What is the impact of double treatment (two doses close together) for S. mansoni and for S. haematobium?
In a paper published in PLoS NTD, King et al. showed that, although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, cure rates and egg-reduction rates with double treatment were higher, particularly for S. mansoni infection. Based on decision-tree simulations, there are expected to be cost-effective incremental health benefits to this approach, with an estimated cost of $153 for S. mansoni and $211 for S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by using double treatment in school-based programs. RAP 1 is available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 2 – How well do urine dipsticks perform for assessing prevalence of S. haematobium in low-prevalence areas?
King and Bertsch showed that heterogeneity between studies, even in stratified subgroups, has been very high. Nevertheless, dipsticks appear to be 58 – 75% sensitive relative to egg detection, with rates varying depending on underlying intensity of infection. Interestingly, post-treatment performance is not much different from pre-treatment values, perhaps because studies presenting such data have focused on high risk areas, where there were often many infected children still included in the post-control follow-up surveys. RAP 2 is available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 3 – Do adults in areas with S. haematobium get reinfected after treatment, and, if so, at what rates?
Evaluation of adult reinfection with S. haematobium showed that adults do get reinfected and can contribute to transmission cycles. The quality and quantity of data on this topic did not support a formal review. However, we developed a “summary of the evidence”. RAP 3 is available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 4 – How effective is niclosamide-based mollusciciding in reducing snail numbers and in reducing local Schistosoma infection risk?
RAP 4 examined the literature to determine and compare the efficacy of niclosamide application for intermediate host snail control in Schistosoma-endemic areas. We completed and published a scoping historical review of the perceived pros and cons of this approach, including a list of the technical inputs required to deliver snail control (see King and Bertsch). A second article, published December 2015 in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, provides a quantitative meta-analysis of the reported impact of molluscicide-based snail control programs on Schistosoma incidence and prevalence among local human populations (see King, Sutherland, and Bertsch). RAP 4 is now available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 5 – How best can treatment programs focused on school age children reach those who are not in school?
This published systematic review summarized the different approaches that MDA programs have taken to increase treatment participation by 5 – 18 year old children who are not in school. This group of children often have the greatest risk for infection and disease, yet often get missed by standard school-based treatment programs (see Burnim et al.). RAP 5 is now available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 6 – On a quantitative basis, how does treatment-related reduction in Schistosoma infection intensity translate into reduction in infection-related morbidities?
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the quantitative link between reported reductions in post-treatment Schistosoma infection intensity (egg reduction rate, ERR) and the changes seen in population prevalence of anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, growth retardation, and other clinical complications of schistosomiasis. The project’s objective was to document the impact of varied ERRs on prevalence of specific morbidities, in order to provide quantitative measures of the impact of anti-schistosomal treatments. This project was performed in collaboration with Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Brazil and has been published (see Andrade et al.). RAP 6 is now available as a 2-page brochure for download.
RAP 7 – How does having Schistosoma infection (or not getting treated for an active Schistosoma infection) affect children’s cognitive skills and school performance?
We addressed this question by doing a formal systematic review synthesizing information from 30 relevant epidemiologic studies. Our meta-analysis of the findings indicated the following: Schistosoma infection or untreated status was associated with significant educational loss and significant cognitive deficits (as detected in standard psychometric testing). Negative scholastic impact was seen both in terms of attendance and achievement. Cognitive impact was evident as impairment in both the memory and learning domains. This project was performed in collaboration with colleagues in Michigan, London, and The Philippines, and has been published (see Ezeamama et al.). A summary of RAP 7 is now available as a 2-page brochure for download.
Pennance T, Neves MI, Webster BL, Gower CM, Knopp S, Khamis IS, Ame SM, Ali SM, Rabone M, Emery A, Allan F, Muhsin MA, Suleiman KR, Kabole F, Walker M, Rollinson D, Webster JP (2022) Potential drivers for schistosomiasis persistence: Population genetic analyses from a cluster-randomized urogenital schistosomiasis elimination trial across the Zanzibar islands. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0010419
Ouattara M, Bassa FK, Diakité NR, Hattendorf J, Coulibaly JT, Yao PK, Tian-Bi YT, Konan CK, Assaré RK, Koné N, Guindo-Coulibaly N, Utzinger J, N’Goran EK (2022) Effectiveness of Four Different Interventions Against Schistosoma haematobium in a Seasonal Transmission Setting of Côte d’Ivoire: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Clin Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab787
Grolimund CM, Bärenbold O, Hatz CF, Vennervald BJ, Mayombana C, Mshinda H, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P (2022) Infection intensity-dependent accuracy of reagent strip for the diagnosis of Schistosoma haematobium and estimation of treatment prevalence thresholds. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. https://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.0010332
Ouattara M, Diakité NR, Yao PK, Saric J, Coulibaly JT, Assaré RK, Bassa FK, Koné N, Guindo-Coulibaly N, Hattendorf J, Utzinger J, N’Goran EK (2021) Effectiveness of school-based preventive chemotherapy strategies for sustaining the control of schistosomiasis in Cote d’Ivoire: Results of a 5-year cluster randomized trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008845
Musuva RM, Odiere MR, Mwinzi PNM, Omondi IO, Rawago FO, Matendechero SH, Kittur N, Campbell CH, Jr., Colley DG (2021) Unprotected water sources and low latrine coverage are contributing factors to persistent hotspots for schistosomiasis in western Kenya. PloS One. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0253115
Diakité NR, Ouattara M, Bassa FK, Coulibaly JT, Tian-Bi YT, Meité A, Hattendorf J, Utzinger J, N’Goran EK (2021) Baseline and Impact of First-Year Intervention on Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Seasonal Transmission Foci in the Northern and Central Parts of Côte d’Ivoire. Trop Med Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed6010007
Assaré RK, N’Tamon RN, Bellai LG, Koffi JA, Mathieu TI, Ouattara M, Hurlimann E, Coulibaly JT, Diabaté S, N’Goran EK, Utzinger J (2020) Characteristics of persistent hotspots of Schistosoma mansoni in western Côte d’Ivoire. Parasit Vectors 13: 337. https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-020-04188-x
Mwanga JR, Kinung’hi SM, Mosha J, Angelo T, Maganga J, Campbell C (2020) Village Response to Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis in Mwanza Region, Northwestern Tanzania: Are We Missing Socioeconomic, Cultural, and Political Dimensions? Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0843
Phillips AE, Tohon Z, Dhanani N, Sofo B, Gnandou I, Sidikou B, Noma AG, Madougou B, Alto O, Sebangou H, Halilou KM, Andia R, Garba A, Fenwick, A, Hamidou AA (2020) Evaluating the Impact of Biannual School-Based and Community-Wide Treatment on Urogenital Schistosomiasis in Niger. Parasit Vectors. https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-39224/v1
Ramzy RMR, Rabiee A, Abd Elaziz KM, Campbell CH, Kittur N, Colley DG, Haggag AA (2020) Test, Treat, Track, Test, and Treat Active Surveillance toward Elimination of Schistosomiasis: A Feasibility Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0156
Archer J, Barksby R, Pennance T, Rostron P, Bakar F, Knopp S, Allan F, Kabole F, Ali SM, Ame SM, Rollinson D, Webster BL (2020) Analytical and Clinical Assessment of a Portable, Isothermal Recombinase Polymerase Amplification (RPA) Assay for the Molecular Diagnosis of Urogenital Schistosomiasis. Molecules. https://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/25/18/4175
Allan F, Ame SM, Tian-Bi YT, Hofkin BV, Webster BL, Diakité NR, N’Goran EK, Kabole F, Khamis IS, Gouvras AN, Emery AM, Pennance T, Rabone M, Kinung’hi S, Hamidou AA, Mkoji GM, McLaughlin JP, Kuris AM, Loker ES, Knopp S, Rollinson D (2020) Snail-Related Contributions from the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Program Including Xenomonitoring, Focal Mollusciciding, Biological Control, and Modeling. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0831
Bergquist NR (2020) Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation: Mission Accomplished. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0838
Binder S, Campbell CH, Andros T, Castleman J, Kittur N, King CH, Colley DG (2020) The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation 2008-2020: Approaches, Experiences, Lessons, and Recommendations. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0786
Binder S, Campbell CH, Castleman JD, Kittur N, Kinung’hi S, Olsen A, Magnussen P, Karanja DMS, Mwinzi PNM, Montgomery SP, Secor WE, Phillips AE, Dhanani N, Gazzinelli-Guimaraes PH, Clements M, N’Goran EK, Meité A, Utzinger J, Hamidou AA, Garba A, Fleming FM, Whalen CC, King CH, Colley DG (2020) Lessons Learned in Conducting Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis Control and Measuring Coverage in an Operational Research Setting. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0789
Campbell CH, Binder S, King CH, Knopp S, Rollinson D, Person B, Webster B, Allan F, Utzinger J, Ame SM, Ali SM, Kabole F, N’Goran EK, Tediosi F, Salari P, Ouattara M, Diakité NR, Hattendorf J, Andros T, Kittur N, Colley DG (2020) SCORE Operational Research on Moving toward Interruption of Schistosomiasis Transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0825
Colley DG, Fleming FM, Matendechero SH, Knopp S, Rollinson D, Utzinger J, Castleman JD, Kittur N, King CH, Campbell CH, Kabole FM, Kinung’hi S, Ramzy RMR, Binder S (2020) Contributions of the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) to Schistosomiasis Control and Elimination: Key Findings and Messages for Future Goals, Thresholds, and Operational Research. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0787
Colley DG, Jacobson JA, Binder S (2020) Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE): Its Foundations, Development, and Evolution. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0785
Colley DG, King CH, Kittur N, Ramzy RMR, Secor WE, Fredericks-James M, Ortu G, Clements MN, Ruberanziza E, Umulisa I, Wittmann U, Campbell CH (2020) Evaluation, Validation, and Recognition of the Point-of-Care Circulating Cathodic Antigen, Urine-Based Assay for Mapping Schistosoma mansoni Infections. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0788
Corstjens P, de Dood CJ, Knopp S, Clements MN, Ortu G, Umulisa I, Ruberanziza E, Wittmann U, Kariuki T, LoVerde P, Secor WE, Atkins L, Kinung’hi S, Binder S, Campbell CH, Colley DG, van Dam GJ (2020) Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA): A Highly Sensitive Diagnostic Biomarker to Detect Active Schistosoma Infections-Improvement and Use during SCORE. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0819
King CH, Bertsch D, Andrade GN, Burnim M, Ezeamama AE, Binder S, Colley DG (2020) The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Rapid Answers Project: Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis to Provide Policy Recommendations Based on Available Evidence. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0806
King CH, Binder S, Shen Y, Whalen CC, Campbell CH, Wiegand RE, Olsen A, Secor WE, Montgomery SP, Musuva R, Mwinzi PNM, Magnussen P, Kinung’hi S, Andrade GN, Ezeamama AE, Colley DG (2020) SCORE Studies on the Impact of Drug Treatment on Morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium Infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0830
King CH, Kittur N, Binder S, Campbell CH, N’Goran EK, Meité A, Utzinger J, Olsen A, Magnussen P, Kinung’hi S, Fenwick A, Phillips AE, Gazzinelli-Guimaraes PH, Dhanani N, Ferro J, Karanja DMS, Mwinzi PNM, Montgomery SP, Wiegand RE, Secor WE, Hamidou AA, Garba A, Colley DG (2020) Impact of Different Mass Drug Administration Strategies for Gaining and Sustaining Control of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium Infection in Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0829
King CH, Kittur N, Wiegand RE, Shen Y, Ge Y, Whalen CC, Campbell CH, Hattendorf J, Binder S (2020) Challenges in Protocol Development and Interpretation of the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Intervention Studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0805
King CH, Yoon N, Wang X, Lo NC, Alsallaq R, Ndeffo-Mbah M, Li E, Gurarie D (2020) Application of Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Study Findings to Refine Predictive Modeling of Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium Control in Sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0852
Kittur N, Campbell CH, Binder S, Shen Y, Wiegand R, Mwanga JR, Kinung’hi SM, Musuva RM, Odiere MR, Matendechero SH, Knopp S, Colley DG (2020) Discovering, Defining, and Summarizing Persistent Hotspots in SCORE Studies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0815
Pennance T, Allan F, Emery A, Rabone M, Cable J, Garba AD, Hamidou AA, Webster JP, Rollinson D, Webster BL (2020) Interactions between Schistosoma haematobium group species and their Bulinus spp. intermediate hosts along the Niger River Valley. Parasites & Vectors 13: 268. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04136-9
Ruberanziza E, Wittmann U, Mbituyumuremyi A, Mutabazi A, Campbell CH, Colley DG, Fleming FM, Ortu G, van Dam GJ, Umulisa I, Tallant J, Kabera M, Semakula M, Corstjens PLAM, Munyaneza T, Lancaster W, Mbonigaba JB, Clements MN (2020) Nationwide Remapping of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Rwanda Using Circulating Cathodic Antigen Rapid Test: Taking Steps toward Elimination. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0866
Salari P, Fürst T, Knopp S, Utzinger J, Tediosi F (2020) Cost of interventions to control schistosomiasis: A systematic review of the literature. PLOS Negl Trop Dis. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0008098
Salari P, Fürst T, Knopp S, Rollinson D, Kabole F, Khamis MI, Omar MA, Bacon O, Ali SM, Utzinger J, Tediosi F (2020) Financial Costs of the Zanzibar Elimination of Schistosomiasis Transmission Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0252
Webster JP, Neves MI, Webster BL, Pennance T, Rabone M, Gouvras AN, Allan F, Walker M, Rollinson D (2020) Parasite Population Genetic Contributions to the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation within Sub-Saharan Africa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0827
Olsen A, Kinung’hi S, Kaatano G, Magnussen P (2020) Changes in Morbidity, Physical Fitness, and Perceived Quality of Life among Schoolchildren following Four Years of Different Mass Drug Administration Strategies against Schistosoma mansoni Infection in Mwanza Region, Northwestern Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg 102: 100-105. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0428
Keller D, Rothen J, Dangy JP, Saner C, Daubenberger C, Allan F, Ame SM, Ali SM, Kabole F, Hattendorf J, Rollinson D, Seyfarth R, Knopp S (2020) Performance of a real-time PCR approach for diagnosing Schistosoma haematobium infections of different intensity in urine samples from Zanzibar. Infect Dis Poverty. https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-020-00726-y
Gaspard J, Usey MM, Fredericks-James M, Sanchez MJ, Atkins L, Campbell CH, Corstjens P, van Dam GJ, Colley DG, Secor WE (2020) Survey of Schistosomiasis in Saint Lucia: Evidence for Interruption of Transmission. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0904
Walker JW, Kittur N, Binder S, Castleman JD, Drake JM, Campbell CH, King CH, Colley DG (2019) Environmental Predictors of Schistosomiasis Persistent Hotspots following Mass Treatment with Praziquantel. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0658
Tian-Bi YT, Webster B, Konan CK, Allan F, Diakité NR, Ouattara M, Salia D, Kone A, Kakou AK, Rabone M, Coulibaly JT, Knopp S, Meité A, Utzinger J, N’Goran EK, Rollinson D (2019) Molecular characterization and distribution of Schistosoma cercariae collected from naturally infected bulinid snails in northern and central Cote d’Ivoire. Parasit Vectors 12: 117. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3381-3
Sousa MS, van Dam GJ, Pinheiro MCC, de Dood CJ, Peralta JM, Peralta RHS, Daher EF, Corstjens P, Bezerra FSM (2019) Performance of an Ultra-Sensitive Assay Targeting the Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA) for Detection of Schistosoma mansoni Infection in a Low Endemic Area in Brazil. Front Immunol 10: 682. https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2019.00682
Shen Y, Wiegand RE, Olsen A, King CH, Kittur N, Binder S, Zhang F, Whalen CC, Secor WE, Montgomery SP, Mwinzi PNM, Magnussen P, Kinung’hi S, Campbell CH, Colley DG (2019) Five-Year Impact of Different Multi-Year Mass Drug Administration Strategies on Childhood Schistosoma mansoni-Associated Morbidity: A Combined Analysis from the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Cohort Studies in the Lake Victoria Regions of Kenya and Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0273
Shen Y, Sung MH, King CH, Binder S, Kittur N, Whalen CC, Colley DG (2019) Modeling approaches to predicting persistent hotspots in SCORE studies for gaining control of schistosomiasis mansoni in Kenya and Tanzania. J Infect Dis. https://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiz529
Secor WE, Wiegand RE, Montgomery SP, Karanja DMS, Odiere MR (2019) Comparison of School-Based and Community-Wide Mass Drug Administration for Schistosomiasis Control in an Area of Western Kenya with High Initial Schistosoma mansoni Infection Prevalence: A Cluster Randomized Trial. Am J Trop Med Hyg. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0626
Rostron P, Pennance T, Bakar F, Rollinson D, Knopp S, Allan F, Kabole F, Ali SM, Ame SM, Webster BL (2019) Development of a recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) fluorescence assay for the detection of Schistosoma haematobium. Parasit Vectors 12: 514. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3755-6
Rabone M, Wiethase JH, Allan F, Gouvras AN, Pennance T, Hamidou AA, Webster BL, Labbo R, Emery AM, Garba AD, Rollinson D (2019) Freshwater snails of biomedical importance in the Niger River Valley: evidence of temporal and spatial patterns in abundance, distribution and infection with Schistosoma spp. Parasit Vectors 12: 498. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13071-019-3745-8
Platt RN, McDew-White M, Le Clec’h W, Chevalier FD, Allan F, Emery AM, Garba A, Hamidou AA, Ame SM, Webster JP, Rollinson D, Webster BL, Anderson TJC (2019) Ancient hybridization and adaptive introgression of an invadolysin gene in schistosome parasites. Mol Biol Evol. https://doi.org/10.1093/molbev/msz154
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Li EY, Gurarie D, Lo NC, Zhu X, King CH (2019) Improving public health control of schistosomiasis with a modified WHO strategy: a model-based comparison study. Lancet Glob Health 7: e1414-e1422. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30346-8
Knopp S, Person B, Ame SM, Ali SM, Hattendorf J, Juma S, Muhsin J, Khamis IS, Mohammed KA, Utzinger J, Hollenberg E, Kabole F, Rollinson D (2019) Evaluation of integrated interventions layered on mass drug administration for urogenital schistosomiasis elimination: a cluster-randomised trial. Lancet Glob Health 7: e1118-e1129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2214-109X(19)30189-5
Knopp S, Ame SM, Person B, Hattendorf J, Rabone M, Juma S, Muhsin J, Khamis IS, Hollenberg E, Mohammed KA, Kabole F, Ali SM, Rollinson D (2019) A 5-Year intervention study on elimination of urogenital schistosomiasis in Zanzibar: Parasitological results of annual cross-sectional surveys. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 13: e0007268. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0007268
Kittur N, King CH, Campbell CH, Kinung’hi S, Mwinzi PNM, Karanja DMS, N’Goran EK, Phillips AE, Gazzinelli-Guimaraes PH, Olsen A, Magnussen P, Secor WE, Montgomery SP, Utzinger J, Walker JW, Binder S, Colley DG (2019) Persistent Hot spots in Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation Studies for Gaining and Sustaining Control of Schistosomiasis after Four Years of Mass Drug Administration of Praziquantel. The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0193
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