Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles coluzzii are closely related species that are predominant vectors of malaria in Africa. Recently, A. gambiae form M was renamed A. coluzzii and we now conclude on the basis of a diagnostic PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay that Ag55 cells were derived from A. coluzzii. We established an Ag55 cell transcriptome, and KEGG pathway analysis showed that Ag55 cells are enriched in phagosome pathway transcripts. The Ag55 transcriptome has an abundance of specific transcripts characteristic of mosquito hemocytes. Functional E. coli bioparticle uptake experiments visualized by fluorescence microscopy and confocal microscopy and quantified by flow cytometry establish the phagocytic competence of Ag55 cells. Results from this investigation of Ag55 cell properties will guide researchers in the use and engineering of the Ag55 cell line to better enable investigations of Plasmodium, other microbes, and insecticidal toxins. Graphical abstract: Anopheles gambiae cultured Ag55 cells originated from Anopheles coluzzi, have a hemocyte-like transcriptome and are phagocytic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Laboratory colonies of diamondback moth (DBM) larvae were established from larvae collected from four sites in Georgia and Florida where diamide, specifically chlorantraniliprole, insecticide resistance was recently documented. Based on dose-response experiments, these colonies exhibited 109- to 4,298-fold resistance to chlorantraniliprole, compared to a commercially available susceptible control colony. Colonies exhibited 50- to 107-fold resistance to another diamide, cyantraniliprole, based on similar dose-response experiments. All colonies were screened for the presence of four known mutations in the ryanodine receptor (RyR), the target of diamide insecticides, previously associated with resistance in Asian DBM populations. One mutation, G4946E, was identified in colonies from all four field sites, but not the susceptible control colony. Three additional RyR target site mutations, E1338D, Q4594L, and I4790M, were not identified in any of the screened samples. The estimated allele frequency of the G4946E mutation in these colonies ranged from 32 to 90%. These data are consistent with recently reported chlorantraniliprole control failures in Georgia and Florida. It is likely that the G4946E mutation is currently an important contributing factor to chlorantraniliprole resistance in Georgia and Florida DBM populations.
Planting resistant cultivars is the most effective tactic to manage the thrips-transmitted tomato spotted wilt orthotospovirus (TSWV) in peanut plants. However, molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to TSWV in resistant cultivars are unknown. In this study, transcriptomes of TSWV-susceptible (SunOleic 97R) and field-resistant (Tifguard) peanut cultivars with and without TSWV infection were assembled and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were compared. There were 4605 and 2579 significant DEGs in SunOleic 97R and Tifguard, respectively. Despite the lower number of DEGs in Tifguard, an increased proportion of defense-related genes were upregulated in Tifguard than in the susceptible cultivar. Examples included disease resistance (R) proteins, leucine-rich repeats, stilbene synthase, dicer, and calmodulin. Pathway analysis revealed the increased downregulation of genes associated with defense and photosynthesis in the susceptible cultivar rather than in the resistant cultivar. These results suggest that essential physiological functions were less perturbed in the resistant cultivar than in the susceptible cultivar and that the defense response following TSWV infection was more robust in the resistant cultivar than in the susceptible cultivar.
Michael A Catto, Anita Shrestha, Mark R Abney, Donald E Champagne, Albert K Culbreath, Soraya C M Leal-Bertioli, Brendan G Hunt, Rajagopalbabu Srinivasan. Viruses. 2021 Jul 5;13(7):1303. doi: 10.3390/v13071303.
We conducted maximum dose bioassays of insecticide for the control of diamondback moth (DBM), Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), in cole crops, from 2016 to 2019 at several commercial locations in Georgia and Florida. The nominal maximum dose was defined as the highest labeled rate of an insecticide at the beginning of the survey in the equivalent of 935 liters/ha dilution. The results indicated low insecticide efficacy for high labeled rates of the following insecticides by common name (Insecticide Resistance Action Committee group number in parentheses). Our 4-yr survey identified very low levels of DBM larval control (<47%) by lambda-cyhalothrin (3), methoxyfenozide (18), pyriproxyfen (7C), novaluron (15), bifenthrin (3), chlorantraniliprole (28), indoxacarb (22A), and methomyl (1A). The best products for DBM control (>74%) listed in decreasing average levels of efficacy were naled (1B), cyclaniliprole (28), tolfenpyrad (21A), emamectin benzoate (6), and cyantraniliprole (28). Intermediate levels of control (61-71%) were obtained with Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies aizawai (11A), Bacillus thuringiensis, subsp. kurstaki, strain ABTS-351 (11A), and spinetoram (5). This rapid bioassay provided the grower with a ranking of insecticide efficacy for the control the DBM population for that farm site. These data allowed growers to make an informed decision on control quickly and plan for resistance management rotations for DBM that season.
Thrips transmit one of the most devastating plant viruses worldwide–tomato spotted wilt tospovirus (TSWV). Tomato spotted wilt tospovirus is a type species in the genus Orthotospovirus and family Tospoviridae. Although there are more than 7,000 thrips species, only nine thrips species are known to transmit TSWV. In this study, we investigated the molecular factors that could affect thrips ability to transmit TSWV. We assembled transcriptomes of a vector, Frankliniella fusca [Hinds], and a non-vector, Frankliniella tritici [Fitch], and performed qualitative comparisons of contigs associated with virus reception, virus infection, and innate immunity. Annotations of F. fusca and F. tritici contigs revealed slight differences across biological process and molecular functional groups. Comparison of virus cell surface receptors revealed that homologs of integrin were present in both species. However, homologs of another receptor, heperan sulfate, were present in F. fusca alone. Contigs associated with virus replication were identified in both species, but a contig involved in inhibition of virus replication (radical s-adenosylmethionine) was only present in the non-vector, F. tritici. Additionally, some differences in immune signaling pathways were identified between vector and non-vector thrips. Detailed investigations are necessary to functionally characterize these differences between vector and non-vector thrips and assess their relevance in orthotospovirus transmission.
Shrestha A, Champagne DE, Culbreath AK, Abney MR, Srinivasan R (2019) Comparison of transcriptomes of an orthotospovirus vector and non-vector thrips species. PLoS ONE 14(10): e0223438. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0223438