Isolation and characterization of antiplasmodial constituents from the marine sponge Coscinoderma sp.
Six known compounds, namely two halisulfates 1 and 2 and four epidioxy sterols 3–6, were isolated from the marine sponge Coscinoderma sp. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance (1H and 13C NMR) spectroscopy, and their antiplasmodial activities were determined against the chloroquine-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The epidioxy steroids 3–6 all showed moderate to weak antiplasmodial activity, with IC50 values of 2.7 μM for (24S)-5α,8α-epidioxy-24-methylcholesta-6-en-3β-ol (3), 11.6 μM for 5α,8α-epidioxycholesta-6,24(28)-dien-3β-o1 (4), 2.33 μM for 5α,8α-epidioxy-24-methylcholesta-6,9(11)-24(28)-trien-3β-ol (5), and between 12 and 24 μM for 5α,8α-epidioxycholesta-6-en-3β-ol (6). In contrast, halisulfate 2 (1) was inactive, and halisulfate 1 (2) had an of IC50 value of about 24 μM.