The Antarctic sponge Dendrilla antarctica is rich in defensive terpenoids with promising antimicrobial potential. Investigation of this demosponge has resulted in the generation of a small chemical library containing diterpenoid secondary metabolites with bioactivity in an infectious disease screening campaign focused on Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm. In total, eleven natural products were isolated, including three new compounds designated dendrillins B-D (10–12). Chemical modification of abundant natural products led to three semisynthetic derivatives (13–15), which were also screened. Several compounds showed potency against the leishmaniasis parasite, with the natural products tetrahydroaplysulphurin-1 (4) and dendrillin B (10), as well as the semisynthetic triol 15, displaying single-digit micromolar activity and low mammalian cytotoxicity. Triol 15 displayed the best profile against the liver-stage malaria parasites, while membranolide (5) and dendrillin C (11) were strong hits against MRSA biofilm cultures.
Alexandre Bory, Andrew J Shilling, Jessie Allen, Ala Azhari, Alison Roth, Lindsey N Shaw, Dennis E Kyle, John H Adams, Charles D Amsler, James B McClintock, Bill J Baker. Mar Drugs. 2020 Jun 23;18(6):E327. doi: 10.3390/md18060327.