Anibamine and Its Analogues: Potent Antiplasmodial Agents from Aniba citrifolia
In our continuing search for novel natural products with antiplasmodial activity, an extract of Aniba citrifolia was found to have good activity, with an IC50 value less than 1.25 μg/mL. After bioassay-directed fractionation, the known indolizinium alkaloid anibamine (1) and the new indolizinium alkaloid anibamine B (2) were isolated as the major bioactive constituents, with antiplasmodial IC50 values of 0.170 and 0.244 μM against the drug-resistant Dd2 strain of Plasmodium falciparum. The new coumarin anibomarin A (3), the new norneolignan anibignan A (5), and six known neolignans (7–12) were also obtained. The structures of all the isolated compounds were determined based on analyses of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data, and the absolute configuration of anibignan A (5) was assigned from its ECD spectrum. Evaluation of a library of 28 anibamine analogues (13–40) indicated that quaternary charged analogues had IC50 values as low as 58 nM, while uncharged analogues were inactive or significantly less active. Assessment of the potential effects of anibamine and its analogues on the intraerythrocytic stages and morphological development of P. falciparum revealed substantial activity against ring stages for compounds with two C-10 side chains, while those with only one C-10 side chain exhibited substantial activity against trophozoite stages, suggesting different mechanisms of action.